Coachlight Bible Study – Romans Chapter 1
Gentile’s Need Of God’s Righteousness
The Apostle Paul wrote the Epistle to the church at Rome in 57 AD, close to the end of his third missionary journey covered in Acts 20:3-21:14; also look at Romans 15:19. Paul probably wrote this Epistle while he was staying with Gaius of Corinth told in Romans 16:23. Paul’s collection for the poor saints in Jerusalem was complete and Paul was ready to deliver it, but he avoided a plot by the Jews by first going north to Philippi. Paul probably gave the Epistle to Phoebe in Philippi, and she delivered it to Rome.
No other part of Scripture teaches our great doctrines as completely than the book of Romans. All of man’s alibis, pretenses, and self-justification are dealt with and struck down.
We do not know who founded this group at Rome, but two people can be ruled out. First, obviously Paul did not found this church. Romans 1:10-11, 13 & 15 all point out that Paul had never been to Rome at the writing of this Epistle. Second, Peter did not either. The false view of the Roman Catholic Church, believing Peter founded the church in Rome, is based on a false statement of Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History Book II, Chapter 14. This church historian inaccurately says that Peter went to Rome during the second year of the reign of the Roman Emperor, Claudius, 42 AD to deal with the impostor Simon Magus. Simon was the sorcerer who tried to buy the power of the Holy Spirit in Acts 8:18-19. Peter was a pillar in the church of Jerusalem, not Rome (Galatians 2:9). Peter is also mentioned as being active in Jerusalem in Acts 9. He was certainly in Jerusalem until and during the Council of Jerusalem found in Acts 15. Since the Council of Jerusalem can be dated 49 A.D., it was impossible for Peter to have lived in Rome earlier than that. Paul has a long salutation in Romans 16, but he doesn’t mention Peter, and Luke never mentioned Peter as living in Rome in the Book of Acts, his history of the early church.
Who did found the Roman church? There are two possibilities. The first possibility concerns some of those who heard Peter on the Day of Pentecost. Some were described as "strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes.” Perhaps these believing Jews carried the gospel back to Rome and founded the group there. Another possibility is that some of the families converted on Paul’s missionary trips went to Rome and founded the church.
When Paul wrote Romans there was a big group at Rome. Clearly This Epistle tells us that this group consisted of both Jews and Gentiles. Paul wrote about the Jewish Christians in Rome, speaking of their faith as known all over. The original group must have been Jewish.
However, the Gentiles in this group were predominant at the time of writing the book of Romans. Even though Paul addressed the Jews in Romans 4:1, speaking of Abraham as "our father, as pertaining to the flesh,” there are many direct references to the Gentiles. In his introduction Paul spoke of "obedience to the faith among all nations" (Romans 1:5). Paul desired fruit among the Romans, "even as among other Gentiles" (Romans 1:13). After he reviewed God's dealings with Israel in chapters 9-11, it is to the Gentiles that Paul gives concluding admonitions (Romans 11:13). Later when he wrote to the Philippians from Rome, Paul said that the gospel had chiefly taken hold in Rome by Gentiles (Philippians 1:13; 4:22). Paul was writing to both Jews and Gentiles.
I. Overall View Of The Book Of Romans
Revelation Of God’s Righteousness
Demonstration Of God’s Righteous
Application Of God’s Righteousness
Need For God’s Righteousness
Imputation Of God’s Righteousness
Demonstration Of God’s Righteousness
Israel’s Past - Election
Israel’s Present - Rejection
Israel’s Future - Restoration
The Christian’s Walk
Christian Liberty - Principles & Practice
Romans 1:16-17 – The righteous of God revealed in salvation from faith to faith
Written By Apostle Paul – 3rd Missionary Trip – In Greece, Probably Corinth – Acts 20:3-6
About 57 AD
A. The Revelation Of God’s Righteousness – Chapters 1-8
1. The Prologue - Romans 1:1-17
2. Paul’s desire to minister in Rome – Romans 1:8-15
3. The theme combines three important concepts – Romans 1:16-17
4. Gentiles guilt - Pushed aside natural theology – Romans 1:18-32
5. Therefore the Gentiles have a seven point regression – Romans 1:21-31
6. The Jews guilt - Also under condemnation of God – Romans 2:1-3:8
7. How God Judges
a. According to Truth – Romans 2:2-5
b. According to works – Romans 2:6-10
c. According to Impartiality – Romans 2:11-16
8. Both the moral & religious Jews fail to meet God’s Standards
a. Because they do not obey the law – Romans 2:17-29
b. Because they do not believe the Oracles of God – Romans 3:1-8
9. God’s Verdict concerns both Jew & Gentile – Romans 3:9-20
Romans 3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;
10. Justification – God is both Judge and Savior - Romans 3:21 – 5:21
a. The source of Justification - Grace – Romans 3:21-24
b. The basis of Justification - Blood – Romans 3:25-26
c. The condition of Justification – Faith – Romans 3:27-31
d. Justification by faith using Abraham’s life – Romans 4
e. Justification and the reconciliation of man – Romans 5:1-11
f. Reconciliation is brought about by the Love of God
1. The Love of God is causeless – Romans 5:6
2. The Love of God is measureless – Romans 5:7-8
3. The Love of God is ceaseless – Romans 5:9-11
g. Contrast of the two Adams – Romans 5:12-21
1. Death was passed on to all men from the first Adam
2. Righteousness is imputed from the Second Adam to believers
3. The result of this imputation is reconciliation
11. Sanctification – The Separation From sin - Romans 6
a. The Christian is dead to the principle of sin – Romans 6:1-14
b. The Christian is dead to the practice of sin – Romans 6:15-23
c. The Christian is free from the Law – Romans 7
d. The Holy Spirit dwells in and gives power – Romans 8:1-17
12. Glorification – Romans 8:18-39
a. The Christian can be holy now
b. The Christian will be holy in the future
B. The Demonstration Of God’s Righteousness – Romans Chapters 9-11
1. It appears that God has rejected His people Israel – Romans chapter 9
2. In reality it is Israel that has rejected their God – Romans chapter 10
3. God’s rejection of Israel is only partial – He has His remnant
4. God’s rejection of Israel is not permanent – Will be grafted in again
5. God will be faithful to His Covenant
C. The Application Of God’s Righteousness – Romans Chapters 12-16
1. The Salvation of the first eleven chapters should transform us
a. Transformation in relationship to God – Romans 12:1-2
b. Transformation in relationship to society – Romans 12:3-21
c. Transformation in relationship to authority – Romans 13:1-7
d. Transformation in relationship to our neighbors – Romans 138-14
2. Christian Liberty – Romans chapter 14 thru 15:13
a. The principles of Christian liberty – Romans chapter 14
b. The practice of Christian liberty – Romans 15:1-13
c. A transformed life is not a condition for salvation - But it should be the natural outcome of saving faith
3. The close of the Epistle – Romans 15:14-16:27
a. Paul’s plans – Romans 15:14-33
b. Paul’s personal greetings – Romans 16:1-15
c. Exhortation to be aware of them that would divide with false doctrines
d. Final prayer and doxology – Romans 16:17-27
II. The Epistle’s Salutation
Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,
Romans 1:2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,)
Romans 1:3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;
Romans 1:4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
Romans 1:5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:
Romans 1:6 Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ:
Romans 1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
A. The Human Author Of The Epistle
1. Paul A Servant  (or slave) Of Jesus Christ
1401 doulov doulos doo’-los - from 1210; TDNT-2:261,182; n
AV-servant 120, bond 6, bondman 1; 127
1) a slave, bondman, man of servile condition
1a) a slave
1b) metaphor - one who gives himself up to another’s will those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men
1c) devoted to another to the disregard of one’s own interests
2. Paul An Apostle Of Jesus Christ
a. Claimed Apostleship – Chosen Vessel Of God
Acts 9:15 But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way: for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel:
Acts 9:16 For I will shew him how great things he must suffer for my name’s sake.
b. Claimed Apostleship – He Had Been Personally Sent By Christ
Acts 9:6 And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do.
c. Claimed Apostleship – He Had Seen The Risen Lord
I Corinthians 9:1 Am I not an apostle? am I not free? have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? are not ye my work in the Lord?
I Corinthians 9:2 If I be not an apostle unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the seal of mine apostleship are ye in the Lord.
d. Claimed Apostleship – He Had Received Divine Revelation
Galatians 1:10 For do I now persuade men, or God? or do I seek to please men? for if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.
Galatians 1:11 But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man.
Galatians 1:12 For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.
Galatians 1:16 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood:
Galatians 1:17 Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.
3. Paul Separated <873> Unto The Gospel
a. Separated Meaning Set Apart
873 aforizw aphorizo af-or-id’-zo; v - AV-separate 8, divide 1, sever 1; 10
1) to mark off from others by boundaries, to limit, to separate
1a) in a bad sense: to exclude as disreputable
1b) in a good sense: to appoint, set apart for some purpose
b. Paul Was A Jew - God Made Him An Apostle To The Gentiles & Jews
Acts 9:15 But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way: for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel:
B. The Gospel
1. The Gospel - Which He Had Promised Afore By His Prophets
a. Paul Tells His Jewish Audience Their Scriptures All Pointed To Christ
b. Jesus Christ Is The Subject Of The Gospel
1. The Gospel Is Not Just About Christ
2. Christ Is The Gospel
2. The Gospel Is Jesus Christ – One Person Two Natures
a. Christ’s Human Nature – Made Of The Promised Seed Of David
1. Born Of The Virgin Mary – Isaiah 7:14
2. Born Of The Line Of King David
3. Fulfilled Prophecy
2 Samuel 7:12 And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.
Psalms 132:11 The LORD hath sworn in truth unto David; he will not turn from it; Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne.
b. Christ’s Divine Nature – Declared To Be The Son Of God
1. According To The Spirit Of Holiness
2. He Is The Son Of God – He resurrected
1 Peter 3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:
C. The Calling - Christ Gives Paul & All Of Us Grace And Apostleship
1. Our Calling Is A Heavenly Gift
2. The Purpose Of Apostleship
a. To Bring All Nations Into Obedience To The Faith
b. For Christ’s Name
D. The Readers Of The Epistle – To All That Be In Rome
1. Beloved Of God
2. Called To Be Saints
III. Paul Desires To Go To Rome
Romans 1:8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.
Romans 1:9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;
Romans 1:10 Making request, if by any means now at length I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God to come unto you.
Romans 1:11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end ye may be established;
Romans 1:12 That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.
Romans 1:13 Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto,)that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
Romans 1:14 I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the wise, and to the unwise.
Romans 1:15 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.
A. This Group’s Faith Was Well Known All Over
B. The Group At Rome Is Always In Paul’s Prayers
C. Paul’s Reason For Writing The Group At Rome – He Wants To Preach There
1. So That He May Share A Spiritual Gift With Them
2. So That They Would Be Blessed Together
3. So That He Might Have Some Fruit There Also – Evangelist At Heart
D. Paul Has Been Hindered In The Past From Visiting Them
IV. The Theme Of Romans – God’s Righteousness Revealed
Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.
Romans 1:17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.
A. The Gospel Of Christ Is The Power <1411> Of God Unto Salvation
1411 dunamiv dunamis doo’-nam-is; from 1410; force,miraculous power
1. The Gospel Is For The Jew First
2. The Gospel Is Also For The Greek
B. God’s Righteousness Revealed From Faith To Faith
C. Three Important Concepts Incorporated In The Theme
V. The Gentiles Need God’s Righteousness
Romans 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;
Romans 1:19 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them.
Romans 1:20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:
A. Wrath Of God Revealed Against Man’s Sin
1. Against Everything Unlike God – Religion
2. Against Unrighteousness – Relationship To Fellowmen
B. Natural Theology
1. The Heathen Have Clearly Known The Things Of God
a. It Has Been Revealed To Them
b. God Has Revealed The Things Of God To Men
2. The Heathen Are Without Excuse
a. The Things Which Can Be Known About God Are Revealed In Creation
b. The Godhead Is Revealed In Creation
c. The Eternal Power Of The Godhead Is Revealed In Creation
VI. The Natural Progression Of The Unrighteous & Ungodly
Romans 1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
Romans 1:22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,
Romans 1:23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.
A. Even When They Know Of God They Suppress That Knowledge
1. They Don’t Glorify God
2. They Are Not Thankful To God
3. Their Imaginations Became Vain
4. Their Hearts Were Darkened – Reasoned Away God
5. They Thought Of Themselves Wise – But Became Fools
B. They Change The Worship Of God
1. They Change Their Idea Of God Into An Image Of Man
2. They Change Their Idea Of God Into An Image Of Birds
3. They Change Their Idea Of God Into An Image Of Animals
4. They Change Their Idea Of God Into An Image Of Creeping Things
VII. The End Result Of The Unrighteous & Ungodly - Idolatry
Romans 1:24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:
Romans 1:25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
Romans 1:26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:
Romans 1:27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.
Romans 1:28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
Romans 1:29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
Romans 1:30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
Romans 1:31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:
Romans 1:32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
A. God Gives Them Over To Uncleaness – Reprobate Mind
1. Paul’s Use Of The Word In Other Parts Of Scripture – Sexual Sin
(II Corinthians 12:21; Galatians 5:19; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5;
I Thessalonians 4:7)
a. Through The Lusts Of The Flesh
b. Dishonor Their Bodies Between Themselves
c. They Changed The Truth Of God Into A Lie
d. Worship & Serve Creation More Than The Creator
2. God Gives Them Up Unto Vile Affections - Homosexuality
a. The Woman Change The Natural Use To That Against Nature
b. Men Lust Toward Each Other – Men With Men
3. The Reprobate Mind Is Full Of:
f. Full Of Envy
k. Haters Of God
o. Inventers Of Evil Things
p. Disobedient To Parents
q. Without Understanding
s. No Natural Affection
B. At The Same Time They Know The Judgments Of God:
1. They Perform The Above Deeds
2. They Have Pleasure In Them That Do The Above Deeds
VIII. Application From Psalms
Psalm 19:1 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.
Psalm 19:2 Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.
Psalm 19:3 There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.
Psalm 19:4 Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,
Psalm 19:5 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.
Psalm 19:6 His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.
Psalm 19:7 The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.
Psalm 19:8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes.
Psalm 19:9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether.
Psalm 19:10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.
Psalm 19:11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.
Psalm 19:12 Who can understand his errors? cleanse thou me from secret faults.
Psalm 19:13 Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression.
Psalm 19:14 Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my strength, and my redeemer.