Coachlight Bible Study


Jonathan Ė A Type of Christ


Jonathan was not an ordinary man. No matter how long you study, you wonít find one time in the Bible, where he didnít have faith, made a wrong decision, or fell into sin. Even though he was King Saulís son, he was certainly different from his father. He was a man of compassion and integrity and this showed in his loyalty to David.David is the man his father Saul tried to kill. In his life, Jonathan gives us a picture of true friendship, and what a friend truly is like. Doing so, he gives us a glimpse of the loyalty and dedication of the One who calls us His friend, Jesus Christ.


I. He Lays Aside His Position As Heir For His Friend


I Samuel 18:1And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.

I Samuel 18:2And Saul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his fatherís house.

I Samuel 18:3 Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul.

I Samuel 18:4And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle.

A. Twice it is said in this passage that Jonathan loved David as himself

1. This led to a covenant being formed between the two of them.

2. This led to Jonathan giving David

a. His robe

b. His sword

c. His bow

d. His belt

B. This wasnít just a kind thing to do on Jonathonís part

1. Jonathan had just seen

a. The way David had dealt with Goliath

b. And had heard him speak with King Saul about that victory

2. Jonathan was the legitimate successor to his fatherís throne

a. He gave David his robe and weapons

b. He was symbolically indicating that he was willing to give up that right

c. He did it so David could be crowned instead

C. We can see Jesus in this

1. Jesus is the lover of our souls and has made a covenant with us


Matthew 26:27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;

Matthew 26:28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

2. Like Jonathan, to make this covenant, Jesus had to lay aside His position at the right hand of God

a. Now we can be lifted to the position as son of God

b. Now we can join as heirs of the Father


II Corinthians 8:9 For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich.


Galatians 4: 6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

Galatians 4:7 Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.

II. He Lays Down His Life For His Friend


I Samuel 20: 30Then Saulís anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy motherís nakedness? {ThouÖ: or, Thou perverse rebel: Heb. Son of perverse rebellion}

I Samuel 20: 31 For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for he shall surely die. {shallÖ: Heb. is the son of death}

I Samuel 20: 32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain? what hath he done?

I Samuel 20: 33 And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David.

A. Jonathanís friendship didnít stop at simply laying aside his right as heir

1. He was even willing to place his life on the line to protect David

2. In the middle of the anger and spear throwing antics of Saul

a. Jonathan courageously spoke up for David

b. Said that David hadnít done anything wrong

B. Jonathanís loyalty and love for his friend placed his own life at risk

C. This is a picture of the true friendship of Jesus Christ

1. Like Jonathan, He was willing to do more than lay aside His position as heir

2. Like Jonathan, He was willing to lay down His life for his friends.

3. Jesus himself said


John 15:13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

C. Like Jonathan also, who bore the hatred of Saul for David

1. Jesus bore the hatred of mankind

2. So that the very people who hated Him could go free.

D. The greatest prophecy in the Old Testament about the suffering that the Messiah would endure talks about this:


Isaiah 53:3 He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. {we hidÖ: or, he hid as it were his face from us: Heb. as an hiding of faces from him, or, from us}

Isaiah 53:4Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.

Isaiah 53:5But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. {wounded: or, tormented} {stripes: Heb. bruise}


III. He Intercedes For His Friend


I Samuel 19: 1And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David.

I Samuel 19: 2But Jonathan Saulís son delighted much in David: and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself:

I Samuel 19: 3And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee.

I Samuel 19: 4And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good:

I Samuel 19: 5For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?

I Samuel 19: 6And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul sware, As the LORD liveth, he shall not be slain.

A. Earlier with Saul, we see a different side to the friendship of Jonathan

1. Saul is planning the death of David again

2. Jonathan comes to help David

a. Intercedes

b. And pleads for Davidís life to be spared

B. In this case, Saul listened to his son

1. He even said with an oath that David would not be put to death.

2. Of course Saulís the word and oaths of Saul were short lived

C. This intercession of Jonathon is a tiny picture of the intercession that Christ does on our behalf as our true friend

D. Even in His earthly ministry we see His intercession for others even before the actual event happened

An example of this is when Jesus said to Peter


Luke 22:31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat:

Luke 22:32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.

E. Jesus now intercedes for us in His present role as our Priest and mediator before God


Hebrews 7: 24But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. {anÖ: or, which passeth not from one to another}

Hebrews 7:25Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. {to theÖ: or, evermore}


Romans 8:33Who shall lay any thing to the charge of Godís elect? It is God that justifieth.

Romans 8:34Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.

1. This intercession of the Lord Jesus has nothing to do with turning away Godís wrath us.

2. The intercession on our behalf is for strength and courage to endure the trials that we face

3. We can be thankful that our High Priest is also our friend and understands the temptations and trials we face.


Hebrews 4:14 Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.

Hebrews 4:15For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.

Hebrews 4:16 Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.

IV. He Encourages His Friend In The Wilderness


I Samuel 23:15 And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life: and David was in the wilderness of Ziph in a wood.

I Samuel 23:16 And Jonathan Saulís son arose, and went to David into the wood, and strengthened his hand in God.

I Samuel 23:17And he said unto him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee; and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee; and that also Saul my father knoweth.

I Samuel 23:18 And they two made a covenant before the LORD: and David abode in the wood, and Jonathan went to his house.


A. David escaped to the wilderness of Ziph

1. David soon learned that Saul hadnít given up the chase but was still seeking to kill him.

2. I can probably imagine what David was thinking

B. Have you ever felt like youíre going through a wilderness experience

1. You think God is silent

2. You think the trials of this life seem too much for you

C. We have the picture of Jonathan going out into the wilderness to encourage David.


1. Jonathon reminds David about the promises he has received from God

a. He will be king

b. Encourages David that they will come to pass.

2. What a great picture of the Lord Jesus Christ and His encouragement to us through the Holy Spirit in the times of trial


John 14:26But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

D. In times of hardship, the Lord comes to us, like Jonathan did for David

1. Reminding us of His faithfulness

2. Then we are encouraged and have hope as explained:


Romans 15:4For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.

Romans 15:5Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus: {according to: or, after the example of}


II Corinthians 1:3 Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort;

II Corinthians 1:4 Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.

II Corinthians 1:5 For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.


V. We Should Encourage Our Friends Where They Are


A. We are called to comfort and encourage others

1. Who may be going through a hard time.

2. Like Jonathon encouraged David, and Christ comforts us

B. We need to remind those in the wilderness

1. About Godís faithfulness in fulfilling the promises

2. Like Jonathan encouraged David, and Christ comforts us

C. Jonathan interceded, encouraged and laid down his rights for his friend.

D. Jesus does all of these things for us and we likewise, are called to show the same friendship to others in need.



















Jonathon Ė A Type of Christ



Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as his own soul

I Samuel 18:3

Jesus made a covenant with us because He loves us

Matthew 26:27-28

Jonathon laid aside his position as heir to Saulís throne so that David would be heir.

I Samuel 18:1-4

Jesus laid aside His position as heir to the Fatherís throne so that we may be heirs

II Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 4:6

Jonathon laid down his life for his friend

I Samuel 20:30-33

Jesus laid down His life for His friends

John 15:13; Isaiah 53:3-5

Jonathon Interceded and pleaded for Davidís life Ė Saul wanted to kill him again

I Samuel 19:1-6

Jesus continually intercedes on our behalf Ė though Satan would like to destroy us

Luke 22:31-32; Hebrews 7:24-25; Romans 8:33-34; Hebrews 4:14-16

Jonathon encouraged his friend while he was in the wilderness

I Samuel 23:15-18

Jesus encourages us through the Holy Spirit in times of trial

John 14:26; Romans 15:4;

II Corinthians 1:3-5